Looking Back Through 2000 Seasons of Slavery of Africans by various other races in Ayi Kwei Armah

Ayi Kwei Armah's TWO THOUSAND SEASONS, "is a deeply profound and monumental text 'projection of a single voice, plural [we] talked about the history of Africa, its wet and dry seasons over a period of thousand years. The title itself is the huge arch of the time for the long and terrible years in African history, and were passed through the bore. The pan-African epic poem sums up the experience in Africa in the last two thousand seasons, effectively reduced to "a thousandSeasons wasted wandering along the streets of strange surprise, another thousand for finding paths to the living way. "Written in allegorical tone that shifts it from the autobiography of apartness and reconnectedness and realistic details to philosophical musings, predicts a new era of hope of regeneration. Reduces this large span of African history to only two hundred pages, has reason to doubt its authenticity as a novel although it creatively interpret history given.

Ayi KweiArmah was born in a double-port city of Sekondi-Takoradi in western Ghana in 1939 in Fante-speaking parents. On the side of his father, he comes from a royal family in the Ga tribe. His high school went to the prestigious Achimota College. In 1959 he went with a scholarship to the GROTON SCHOOL in Massachusetts. Next, Harvard University, he received a degree in sociology. He moved to Algeria to serve as translator for the magazine RĂ©volution Africaine work. Back in Ghana, he Ghana has worked on television as a scriptwriter and later taught English at the school Navarongo. He was editor of Jeune Afrique magazine in Paris in 1967-8. He then went to Columbia University where he received his MFA in creative writing. In the 1970s he taught at the College of National Education, Chang'omgo, Tanzania, and at the National University of Lesotho. He lived in Dakar, Senegal from the 1980s and taught at Amherst and> University of Wisconsin at Madison.

Armah writing career began in the 1960s. He has published poems and short stories in the Ghanaian OKYEAME Magazine and Harper's, The Atlantic Monthly, and New African. Then in 1968 he published his first novel, "The Beautiful Ones are not yet born, developed as a modern African classic.

TWO THOUSAND Seasons is a novel of loss and redemption. "Woe to the race, too generous in giving of themselves, that is a highwayRegeneration but a highway to its own extinction, "he warns, and goes on, the paths are: the many false and the true track.

The place of origin, at home, is an unspecified sub-Saharan African country. The story really begins with the arrival of predators, which bring the ruin. First, we have the Arabs, the Europeans – all white. And still the weak and complicit show keep locals from the outset a "fantastic quality […]: loyalty to those who spit on them," saidContribute to the ruin of bringing the inside out.

The first robber as a beggar. Their pitiful appearance is misleading. Skillfully and patiently, they took hold of their religion to inspire and to prevail over the weak by her against her husband Africans. The robbers reduce them "animals" by starving their minds with their alien religion and 'indulge their grossest physical needs. These animals, the perfidious-Askari, the subject to keep the locals in the thousandsthe seasons – are pathetic, but if the others disdainfully call them "white dogs desert-men" they are willing and often very effective tools of the predators.

Armah thus holds the African must show that the destruction of one's own culture is helped by ever so willing, with the [know more] devil and by selling his fellow man.

The "white man from the desert," patiently opens up again stronger and wiser every time. The locals do notknow how they can protect themselves:

This time the robbers came with violence – to break our body. This time

They also came with guile – a religion, the most vulnerable among us, spirits broken,

then turn them into instruments, all of us. The white men from the desert had

made a discovery that valuable to thieves and destroyers: the conquest of the mind

and the body is both a slavery far more lasting far safer than the

Conquest of the body alone.

Revoltsgreat cruelty were commonplace. Gluttony The Robbers "conducts its own
Doom – but that's never been enough to undo. Success is limited. The next wave of predators are seemingly always at the ready. But the local never seem to get smarter.

Leadership is also a problem in this text as it is tied to violence. The rulers, reserves for Armah is nothing left but contempt are the worst. "The quietest King, the leader of the gentlest mystified, is a criminal on the exerciseof any compassion. "This certainly applies to its prime example, the greedy fool Koranche.

The whites are coming after the Arabs, not only predators, but destroyers – the armed colonial European powers. And Armah's for sure: "There is nothing, or" Monstrous white men do not do to satisfy their greed ', is the greed of the white destroyers, their endless greed. "Luckily for them, there is little Koranche and his sycophants do not do to satisfy their greedeither:

Among the white destroyer there was no respect for anything we could say.

They had come determined to see nothing, no one, bent solely on the lists

Satisfy their greed, of which we had plenty of messages. But the king was

infatuated with the white destroyers, and would not be on people as

quickly in their expression, as it was clear to go tell the white men.

Among the destroyers are missionaries with another toxicReligion.
Wise Isanus advance warning before, over and over again to the dangers, but nobody listens.

"Have we forgotten the cause of our long walk?" Did not we learn near the desert, as priests and warriors, two destroyers, the priest attack on the spirit of sacrifice, the soldiers break points still occupied by opposition want? " All honest people who come to us, have come because they were trying to be good to us, as part of our people, and she said it. These white men,they do not want as a part of us. But since they've come claimed to have crossed the sea, where they made just to us will do well. They are hypocrites. They are liars. We have not demanded it. We should not, they will be coming here. You do not want to live with us. They are living against us "[P153-154]
''The whites want a permanent harassment of us "… He told us in the city Poano he had a white man, a missionary, whose white greed heard was soSubtle they were looking forward to the end of the free trade of people, the beginning of a more subtle destruction. This white missionary thought it would be much more profitable in terms of victims of trafficking here in our country to take advantage of the kings and courtiers, in order to grow my own and independent of the whites have, the product offers at the white destroyer … Isanus said the white missionaries were busy trying to find ways to perpetuate our slavery through the use of our leadersharder to see in a clever kind of oppression, such as slavery, slavery disguised as freedom itself. The whites want to be a long oppression of us.''[P163]

[The narrator] "Our decisions in life, we were ready to begin not much we could fit into the existing schemes to leave that our dreams, dreams of a better world by our way of way. Or we could try to to implement manner., That the fight would mean to the white road system of the white population for the destruction of our waythe ways.

We heard Isanus. We did not know that the knowledge contained in his words was immediate and urgent knowledge. We thought we had time to absorb it, time to adapt in order to have their importance. We had none.

Isanus tried to warn us, but we ignored him. We thought it was a gap between words and reality, a space for us room to maneuver in. There was none …. He warned us very clearly in the new scheme, the positions that remain have already become mere jobsfor parasites. "

[Isanusi] "Things have around if you do not want parasites, you need time to get to from what it's more to think about. And get over time, the courage to do what you do connect, the harder it is ….'
[Isanusi] "If you knew who you were, you would not have invitations from [B] lack men to accept the white man to call friends. Bloody interests include food as unnatural friendships. They live as their victims." [P164 – 166]

Later, afterthey were in slavery by their king and escaped, "his words were an echo of selling what we know about living." Finally, they are certainly not in the past, or "return home, blasted with a triumphant look white." They would "seek the necessary beginning of the destruction destruction."

Isanusi see how far the way to the future is to be noted that this generation is not "white and would survive the blight that only the foundations can be loud, carried out the beginnings. Despite theBetrayal of the chiefs and leaders of the greed of parasites that we were so far into the "white death" pushed, there is hope for the future – one even if not immediately,

Despite the unspeakable horrors, oppression and betrayal in BOUND violence, this novel is unlike them a story about the triumph of the human spirit and the will. Enslaved, there are a daring escape from the ship by rescuing the others followed. The white predators are a way to undercuttheir own game. Arms of them are stolen then turned against it. In spite of continuing betrayal, produces success with small movements on the road. Much of it is standing dramatically in context. It is a stirring, often frightening, often touching read.

The shared norms, values and ancestors in combined background of violence rested maintained in two thousand SEASONS. This could be the best in the style of the first paragraph of the first chapter examines his obesitycommunal'we.

We are not a people of yesterday. Did they ask you how many individual seasons

flowed from our beginnings to now? We shall join them on the correct number

Beginning until now? We shall join them in the right place at the beginning of their counting. On a clear night is when the light of the moon, the old woman and her seven children, saying such a night, they walk alone in the devastatedWorld. They come first count one, then seven, and after the seven all the other stars visible only in their eyes.

After this beginning, they are ready for the sand. Let's consider it on cereal

of each grain.

And after they have reached the end of that counting, we do not have to ask

the raindrops in the sea book. But with the wisdom of the result, they have to ask again, how many seasons flowed, since our peoplewere


As Ngara States, the preponderance of first-person plural "we has" made in the history of the narrator as "a common voice in the true tradition of African communalism." Armah narrator, spokesman for the group, an example of one of the important messages of the book – the truism that are strength, survival, and find beauty even in togetherness. So we have the constant stress on their common background for all the text by suchPhrases like "our people", "our source" and "our history". With the first person, the writer creates the illusion of a speaker once actually addressing a listener – in this case, a reader, such as Mensah sets. But then we also have the impression that the cashier with an audience with his story as he ever ask again: "They ask how many individual seasons we have flowed from our beginnings to today?" Thus, the narrator a more than usual degree of immediacy of a direct contact to bea vibrant voice.
This effect is through the rhetorical use of repetition in "On a clear night when the light of the moon, the old woman and her seven children, saying such a night, they destroyed has been improved." The most frequent repetition is that the "path", "our way" and "reciprocity". This sometimes gives the story some philosophical turn as could be seen in: "The most common meaning, that meaning has been large enough to hold all other meanings, the significance of the way itself: the callon reciprocity in a world of destroyers again wiped innocent from predators. What was the meaning of the way? His meaning was clear the destruction of the destruction. It is the narrowest sense: the search for ways to make the necessary beginning. "

Here, "importance" are often repeated. But we also recognize the use of another rhetorical means to the rhetorical questions on the example below:

What we now want to determine that our tolerance of the many stupid things to remember

has supported?Shall we remind Ziblin me of the heavy, heavy not like a live elephant, but how sick mud, he wanted every new bride's hymen as his

Price boast, but the tears of women turned out in laughter when they found

massive would-be king had not open the blood in him for providing the widest

Door? Or shallow memory be Jezebo, who for the consolation of his

shrunken soul wanted to come all in his presence to crawl on their knees. Or Bulukutu who hasa thousand grandiose, empty names of praise

Death forget to laugh, except in the memories Reminder?

With this device we get a feeling of shared experience of the narrator with the audience by giving them questions. But in fact, the questions themselves are statements in disguise, because they actually do, what shall do it, too.

The use of proverbs to a time when the need for consciousness is emphasized, is of importance:

Ofunconnected to say there is more awareness about the clear recognition of this destruction is the most effective weapon against the soul? That the left hand

be treated, do not know what their rights are twin to do … That the heart should not beat House faster when familiar terms, to be moved heinous it

Actions. This is our left eye should be set to see its not against the two with him … This was the sight of the eye should be disconnected, cut off from the global intellectualConsciousness – what is it but death is white in delirious triumph?

The wisdom of words has moved to the public in the implementation of the destructiveness of disconnected consciousness shock.

Armah has the effect of the re-write in the speaking voice at work making it one of the oral works ever written. It is not only a speaking voice. It is formal and dignified, and invested with authority. This is reflected in the tone, the contemptuousTone in which the narrator describes, questions about the age of the Africans. "Just as only a fool would try to count the stars or the grains of sand on the coast or the raindrops in the ocean, so that only a fool would want to count the years to get to the ancient time when the African people incurred "It is a tone suggestive of the wisdom and the impatience with the foolishness of the opportunities in Europe. This site also uses an example of another device to ArmahInvestment by the narrator with the authority, which is the deep knowledge displayed on African affairs. The reader is overwhelmed in the new novel by the narrator's encyclopaedic knowledge of the African rivers, trees, people, names, and their story so that the voice of the court historian, the griot, or at least clever grandparents to tell the boys of the village stories from ancient times. AS Robert Fraser notes, "where we previously searched in vain for an instance ofidentified authorial intervention, the writer here takes on the role of a brash commentator from the first sentence.


Fraser, Robert, the novels of Ayi Kwei Armah, London, Heinemann,


Ngara, Emmanuel, Stylistic Criticism and the African novel,

London, Heinemann, 1982

Palmer, Eustace, the growth of African NOVEL, London,

Heinemann, 1979

Lindfors, Bernth, 'Armah's stories' in African literature TODAYNo. 11,


Mensah, in AN, "Style and Purpose in the thousands Armah TWO SEASONS"

African Literature Today No. 17 ed. Eldred Jones

Omotoso, Kole, "Trans-Saharan views, mutually negative portraits" in AFRICAN

Literature Today No. 14, 1984

Wright, Derek, "Ayi Kwei Armah's TWO THOUSAND SEASONS: A Dissent"


Tags: , , , , ,

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: