Frederick Douglass – Breaking the Chains of Slavery to Freedom liberating Unto Others

Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey, later known as Frederick Douglass, one of the main leaders of the movement to abolish the death penalty, which was sold into slavery in the United States in the decades before the Civil War end Born a slave in Tuckahoe, Talbot County, Eastern Shore , Maryland, near Hillsborough, in February 1817, as it is commonly believed. The exact date of his birth is uncertain.

Much speculation surround Douglas first year as much as his parents. It wasthat he is the descendant of the early American Muslims. The identity of the father Douglass' is unclear: Douglass once said that his father was a white man, perhaps, refers to its owner, Aaron Anthony, whom he took as a surrogate father, but later said he knew nothing about the identity of his father.

It was from his mother, Harriet Bailey, when he separated a child, she worked as slaves in a plantation, which was twelve miles distant from their six children. He was thereforefor the care of his grandmother until he was five years old. Though Douglas never learned the exact date of his birth, he remembers clearly the details of his early life as a slave on a plantation in Maryland.

Once, when he remembers, he was unexpectedly visited by his mother, all the way to see him, so gingercake for him a great one. Frederick, as he recalled, fell asleep and only woke up the next morning went in search of her. He could not remember seeing heragain. She died not long after, when Douglass was about 7 At this age, or thereabout, Douglass was separated from his grandmother and in the Wye House plantation, where Anthony worked as overseer of the vast plantation of Colonel Edward Lloyd. Here he saw much of the bitterness of slave life. He was often so hungry that he's always competed with the dog for the crumbs falling off the old Nep stolen from the kitchen table. He would often be waiting eagerly to the girl as she pushed theTablecloth so threw the crumbs and bones for the dogs and cats. Such treatment made him a little boy of nine fully aware of the "unjust and murderous character of slavery."

When Anthony died, Douglass was to Lucretia Auld, wife of Thomas Auld given. Mrs. Douglass Auld sent to Baltimore to brother Thomas, Hugh Auld, 9 was used as Douglas. For seven years he was Hugh Auld, first as a maid and later as a laborer in the shipyard.

WhenDouglass was about 10, broke Hugh Auld wife, Sophia, the law teaches him to read. It did not take long for young Douglass had mastered a few letters of the alphabet. Soon developed his mastery of such a level that he could now check the spelling words of three or four letters. When Hugh Auld discovered this, he firmly refused, saying that if a slave learned to read, he would with his situation and the desire of liberty is no longer satisfied. Douglass later referred to this as the first anti-speech, which he had the death penalty've ever heard, which moves a lot in his desire to work for his education as a key to his liberation .. equip

Thereafter, as in the detailed narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, Douglass, he continued his education through various sophisticated means. He converted the white kids in the neighborhood where he lived, or that he is in the streets of his teachers to put him with his Webster primer help he always in his pocket, and byObservation of the writings of the men with whom he worked. The first fifty cents he earned by shoe-shining, he would become a popular textbook then the Columbian Orator, whose contents he devoured in no time to buy. He received from him the speeches of Sheridan, which he applauded as "a bold and powerful denunciation of oppression and a brilliant justification of the rights of man."

When Douglass was about eleven years old, he was sent to propose to his master yards and spun tow, keepingFires under Boiler pitch and turn grindstones. In his spare time he focuses on the essential aim of the letter by imitating and copying the letters on the ships master. With the streets as his schools, his workmates and playmates and teachers, and the fences as his exercise books and plates, he learned to write. Much later in life he was to use these skills as a response to a request for an autograph: "Though my handwriting is not in order, it is pretty good for someone who learnedto write on a board fence. "

Soon enough, even in those early years, a lot of questions about his and the freedom of others or lack of it began to trouble his mind. He wondered, for example, why some people are slaves, while others were masters, and whether it has always been so, and if not, how did it start. Hearing his masters and friends, including termination of abolitioists to extend its inquiry about who and what were the abolitionists. The answers to the last question, which he soonfound in the columns of the American Baltimore's history, featured submitted that a large number of petitions to Congress since the abolition of the internal slave trade. He found great hope in these words from that day.

Death of Captain Anthony, who was sixteen years old, Douglass Thomas Auld, a cruel and tightifisted given master. Unable to put up with rebellious spirit of Douglass and determined, his young and daring, Thomas Auld crushDouglass then sent to Edward Covey, a poor peasant, a reputation as a "slave-breaker had to" work for a year, to have tamed his spirit. Douglass, it was regularly beaten. From January to August 1834 Douglas was revised, flogged every day, and nearly starved to death. Sixteen-year-old Douglass was in fact nearly broken psychologically by his sufferings under Covey, but after enduring six months of such brutality, he gave the right to defend themselves. He leaned against the blows, and finallyresisted the word "Negro-breaker" a spanking. Covey lost in a confrontation with Douglass and never tried to beat him again. The incident was kept covered, possibly because Covey was afraid that the news of the victory would be Douglass' reputation as a "slave breaker" ruin, or simply because he ashamed of his defeat. Covey now decided to ignore, Douglass. Douglass never forgot that incident and described him as a life change in this excerpt from his writings:

I was a changedafter this fight. I was nothing before. I was a man who now … with renewed determination to be a free man … I got the point where I die, do not be afraid to reach. The spirit that made me a free man, in fact, although I am still a slave in the form ..

Douglass after this episode worked for two years on the plantation of another slave-owner, William Freedland, in the vicinity. The conditions were much better here, with enough food and entertainment to enable Douglass, a mystery Sunday School Code of Conductforty slaves. But that was not enough freedom and previlege for him. So he resolved to escape. In the spring of 1836 Douglass made his first attempt to escape from his owner. Along with several others, they are willing to use a bigger boat, paddle down the Chesapeake, and follow the North Star to freedom. The plot was discovered, and Douglas was jailed. About to be sold to slave traders, his master had sent him back to Baltimore, where he worked in the shipyards, sealing vessels.

In 1837,Douglass met Anna Murray, a free African American at a meeting of the East Baltimore Improvement Society, while he was still enslaved. This meeting increased his desire to be free, because he was determined to be free and responsible people do not marry as belonging to a master. He successfully escaped slavery on 3 September 1838, on board a train to Havre de Grace, Maryland, dressed in a sailor's uniform and carrying identification papers of a free black seaman made available. After crossing theSusquehanna River by ferry at Havre de Grace, Douglass continued by train to Wilmington, Delaware. From there they traveled by steamboat to "Quaker City" – Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Here Douglass in his own account, lived "in a day more than a year … slave life." His escape to freedom eventually led him to New York, the entire journey of less than 24 hours.

Douglass learned to organize David Ruggles, the efficient secretary of the New York Negro vigilance, to help introduce refugeeSlaves. Ruggles sheltered him for several days before Anna Murray joined him, and were on 15 September by a Presbyterian minister and a few days later the couple on their way to New Bedford, married Massachujsetts, where Ruggles thought Douglas' skills as a caulker, they would deserve to earn a living.

With the support of a wealthy family, Negro, left the Douglas, to her new life. The resistance of white workers did not pursue him for trading with caulking. He had to sawWood, shovel coal, dig basements, garbage car, whipped bellows in a brass foundry, and load and unload the ships live a dollar a day. Anna's earnings as a domestic supplemented this meager income for the family support.

The pressure to earn money to afford not to its growing family support Douglass many opportunities to continue his education. But the same ingenuity he applied as a slave was put to use once more. For as he said, hard work, all day on a scaldingFurnace was acting more favorable than previously thought. To ensure he uses the time in the direction of improving his mind, he would often read a newspaper on the nail place near his bottom, and while working the heavy beams, through the ups and downs in the bellows inflated were charged and discharged.

Douglass joined various organizations in New Bedford, Massachusetts, instead of participating in the white Methodist churches to worship the blacks are allowed if they agreed to sit inseparate benches, he joined a small sect, the Zion Methodist, a black church. He soon became a local preacher, and attracted much attention and admiration for his great abilities as a speaker. In the words of a close friend, "he could speak, so that everyone would be listening to him, and that few, if any, could speak, as he could."

He visited regularly abolitionist meetings, carried out by the blacks, the community. He began to William Lloyd Garrison's great anti-slavery weekly subscribeJournal, The Liberator, and in 1841, he heard Garrison at a meeting of the Bristol Anti-Slavery Society to speak. Douglass was unexpectedly invited to one of these meetings, where he told his story and was encouraged, an anti-slavery lecturer in speak. Douglass was inspired by Garrison.

Then John A. Collins, general agent of the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society asked Douglas to an active lecturer for the organization, he decided after careful consideration. He now decided tohis whole life to the abolitionist cause, together with many others to devote themselves Garrison.

Douglass on the request of the American Anti-Slavery Society engaged in a lecture tour that brought him recognition as one of America's first great black speakers gained world fame when his autobiography was published 1845th

A firm believer in the equality of all people, whether black, female, Indian, or recent immigrant background, Douglass dedicated his lifeto advocating the brotherhood of all people. He was determined to always unite with others to do it right and do not wrong.

He soon became one of the most effective orators of his time, an influential newspaper editor, a confidant of the radical abolitionist John Brown, a militant reformer and a respected diplomat.

Douglass spent two years in Britain and Ireland are a number of presentations, especially in the Protestant churches or chapels, some "crowded to suffocation." Hemet and befriended the Irish nationalist Daniel O'Connell.

Douglass later became the editor of a number of newspapers: The North Star, Frederick Douglass Weekly, Frederick Douglass 'Paper, Douglass' Monthly and New National Era .. "

Douglass' work included the years before and during the Civil War. He was familiar with the radical abolitionist John Brown, but Brown rejected the plan to start an armed slave insurrection in the south.

Douglass conferred withPresident Abraham Lincoln in 1863 on the treatment of black soldiers, and with President Andrew Johnson on the subject of black suffrage. His first employees were the white abolitionists William Lloyd Garrison and Wendell Phillips ..

In 1851, the Douglass North Star with Gerrit Smith's Liberty Party Paper to be merged Frederick Douglass' Paper, which was published until 1860. One of his daughters, died in Rochester, New York, while her father was still in England. Douglass backof England the following month, taking the route through Canada to avoid detection.

At the time of the Civil War, Douglass was one of the most famous black man in the country, known for his oratories on the condition of the black race and other topics such as women's rights.

On 20 February 1895, Douglass, during a meeting of the National Council of Women in Washington, DC, he placed on the platform and a standing ovation from the audience. But shortlyAfter his return, he died after suffering a serious cause heart attack or stroke. He is buried in Mount Hope Cemetery in Rochester, New York.

Douglas's life has a heroic role model for all oppressed people.

Further reading:

Henry Louis Gates, Jr., ed. Frederick Douglass, Autobiography (Library of America, 1994)

Foner, Philip Sheldon. The life and work of Frederick Douglass. New York: International Publishers, 1950.

Huggins, Nathan Irvin, and Oscar Handlin.Slave and Citizen: The Life of Frederick Douglass. Library of American Biography. Boston: Little, Brown, 1980.

Lampe, Gregory P. Frederick Douglass: Freedom's Voice. Rhetoric and Public Affairs Series. East Lansing, Michigan State University Press, 1998. X (alk. paper) (pbk. alk. Paper) () on his oratory

Levine, Robert S. Martin Delany, Frederick Douglass, and the Politics of Representative Identity. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1997.(pbk.). (pbk.: alk. paper) (Cultural History)

McFeely, William S. Frederick Douglass. New York: Norton, 1991

Quarles, Benjamin. Frederick Douglass. Washington: Associated Publishers, 1948.

Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass at Project Gutenberg.

Audiobook of the story from the Life of Frederick Douglass on FreeAudio.org
Collected Articles of Frederick Douglass, A Slave (Project Gutenberg)

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