Booker Washington's tireless work in the U.S. for socio-economic development for black Americans

Booker T. Washington, which is to "exempt from slavery had received only a primary school have probationary admission to Hampton Institute and proved such a star pupil, teacher and speaker, that the principle of Hampton Armstrong recommended him to lead them to Alabamans establishing a school for African-Americans in their state.

In 1881 he founded will be hired as the first director of a school in Alabama. under a charter from the Alabama legislatureTraining teachers, searched for the first time a black, was offered such a high position.They soon the energetic and visionary leader to Washington. Washington was normal as the first rector and the Tuskegee Industrial Institute. which he built from scratch in the most prestigious and stable higher institution for blacks in the United States.

In 1895 was invited to Washington to speak at the opening of the cotton and the international trade fair for an unprecedentedHonor for an African American in this time .. His Atlanta Compromise speech explained his major thesis there, the blacks could secure their constitutional rights over their own economic and moral advancement rather than through legal and political changes. Washington address, was greeted in the African American community and among liberal whites North and South. Whites approve of his views. He won over several elements among southern whites, whose support forHe placed the programs in schools and especially in the field of education, which he used easily.

He was supported by WEB Du Bois at the time, but some years later the two began with some differences. Washington conciliatory stand angered blacks and Du Bois, who fears his conciliatory attitude to promote the enemies of equality. While Washington appreciated the "industrial" education for real jobs for the majority of African Americans is based onthe time, Du Bois called for a "classical" liberal arts education at an elite, he called The Talented Tenth. Both sides sought to the best means to the conditions of the post-Civil War African-American community to improve. Despite not condemn to Jim Crow laws and the inhumanity of lynching publicly, Washington privately contributed funds for legal challenges against exclusion and disenfranchisement, as his support in the case of Giles v. Harris, who went beforeUnited States Supreme Court in 1903 ..

Washington the public figure often invoked his own past to illustrate his faith in the dignity of work. "There was no time in my life that was devoted to play," Washington once wrote. "From the time that I can not remember anything, almost every day in my life has been engaged in a kind of work." This concept of self-reliance born of hard work, the foundation of his social philosophy.

Although not everyone agreed with Booker WashingtonHe has been helped a respected leader, many schools and institutions to collect donations and support from government and other private donors. From this position of leadership he rose into a nationally prominent role as spokesman for the African Americans

Washington philosophy and tireless work on educational issues helped him win both the financial and moral support from many major philanthropists. He became friends with such self-made man from modest beginnings as Standard OilMagnate Henry Huttleston Rogers and Sears, Roebuck and Company President Julius Rosenwald.

Washington in connection with the richest and most powerful businessmen and politicians era.These individuals and many other rich men and women funded his causes, such as in the promotion, operation and equipping of schools in Hampton and Tuskegee. Apart from that, as a spokesman for African-Americans in sight, he became a conduit for funding educational programs. BeContacts included such diverse and well-known personalities such as Andrew Carnegie, William Howard Taft, John D. Rockefeller, Henry Huttleston Rogers, and Julius Rosenwald, where he stresses the need for better educational facilities known. As a result of countless small schools were established through his efforts, in programs that continued many years after his death.

A representative case of an extraordinary relationship with Washington was his friendship with the millionaire industrialist andFinancier Henry H. Rogers (1840-1909). Henry Rogers, had a self-made man, risen from a modest working family in a principal amount of Standard Oil, and was one of the richest men in the United States has become. Around 1894, Rogers heard Washington at Madison Square Garden to speak. The next day, he contacted Washington and requested a meeting in Washington later said that he was told that Rogers was "surprised that no one had" the hat "after the speech." The meetingbegan a close relationship, which had extended over a period of 15 years. Although he and the very private Rogers openly visible to the public as friends, and Washington was a frequent guest on the New Rogers' York office, its Fairhaven, Mass., summer home, and on board his steam yacht Kanawha, the true depth and extent of their relationship was not publicly revealed until after Roger's sudden death from a stroke in May 1909.

A few weeks later, Washington went on apreviously planned speaking tour along the newly completed Virginian Railway, a $ 40 million dollar company, which almost entirely from a substantial part of the personal assets of Rogers' built. As Washington rode in the late financier private railway car, "Dixie", he stopped and made speeches in many places, where his companions later said that he was warmly welcomed by black and white citizens at each stop.

Washington revealed that Rogers was calmFinancing operations of 65 small country schools for African-Americans, and had significant sums to support given to Tuskegee Institute and Hampton Institute. He also revealed that Rogers would programs with matching funds "requirements on the receiver as a stake in knowing that they themselves helped by their own hard work and sacrifice, and have thus improve their self-esteem, encourages had.

$ 1,000,000 was transferred to Washington from another wealthy Contact, Anna T.Jeanes (1822-1907) of Philadelphia in 1907. She hoped to build some schools for Negro children in the south. Their contributions, along with those of Henry Rogers and others funded schools in many communities where the white people were also very poor, and few funds for Negro schools.

Julius Rosenwald (1862-1932) was another self-made wealthy man with whom Washington a common basis of which he much support. By 1908, Rosenwald, the son of aImmigrant clothier, had become a part-owner and president of Sears, Roebuck and Company in Chicago. Rosenwald, a philanthropist who was deeply concerned about the poor state of African American education is concerned, especially in the South.

In 1912, Rosenwald was asked on the Board of Directors of Tuskegee Institute, a position which he used for the rest of his life. Rosenwald Tuskegee adequately funded so that Washington could travel now spend less time trying to find the funding. ThisIt enabled him to devote more time to the management of the school. Later in 1912, Rosenwald provided funds for a pilot program with six new small schools in rural Alabama, designed and built and opened in 1913 and 1914, and overseen by Tuskegee. The model proves to be successful, based Rosenwald replicate the Rosenwald Fund to everything about the South. The school building program was one of the largest programs. Using state-of-the-art building plans initially drawn byProfessors at Tuskegee Institute, the Rosenwald Fund spent over four million U.S. dollars to build 4977 schools, 217 teachers and 163 homes Store building in 883 districts in 15 states, from Maryland to Texas. The Rosenwald Fund used a system of matching grants, and black communities raised more than $ 4.7 million for the construction of these schools, which became known as the Rosenwald schools, aid. By 1932 the facilities could accommodate one third of all children in African AmericanSouthern U.S. schools.

Each school was originally founded to produce teachers. However, graduates had often returned to find their local communities, very few schools and educational resources to work with in the largely impoverished South. To meet these needs, by providing millions of dollars and innovative matching funds programs, Washington and his philanthropic contributions from the community to stimulate the local network to build small community schools. Together, theseEfforts eventually established and operated more than 5,000 schools and supporting resources for the improvement of the blacks in the South in the late 19th and early 20 Century. The local school soon grew into great sources of community pride and a lot has been invaluable for Afro-American families in these difficult times in public education. This work was an important part of his legacy and was continued (and by the Rosenwald Fund and other advanced) for many years afterWashington's death in 1915.

As Washington's influence with whites and blacks, he has earned several awards. In 1901, he wrote Up From Slavery – his autobiography, which became a best seller .. Up from Slavery, was published only in 1901, is still widely read. As a result of his work as a teacher and speaker, Washington became influential in business and politics. Washington did much to the overall improvement of friendship and cooperation between the races in the UnitedStates.He was also an advisor to the then President of the United States of America – Theodore Roosevelt in the process becoming the first black ever to the White House to dine with the president. "Although it created a great sensation. Many whites thinkingt that it was wrong for whites and blacks, social mix, were appalled at their President for this. Roosevelt defended his actions at the time, and continue to ask for advice, Washington, but not invite him again.

FinallyWashington led by the blacks started by the attitude of the whites, to the advancement of blacks undemined be. It became clear that the whites control the Southern institutions, which had won, after reconstruction is not always civil and political status of blacks who want to improve – no matter how hard they worked and had as much character. They passed laws to keep them from voting and to keep them from mixing with whites in schools, shops and restaurants.

Washington critics.charged that his conservative approach undermined the search for Racial Equality. Washington became the leaders of the NAACP, which was founded in 1909, notably by WEB Du Bois, who criticized a harder line on civil rights called for protests. Following is called "The Great accommodation" of Du Bois, Washington replied that confrontation would lead to disaster for the outnumbered blacks, and that cooperation with supportive whites was the only way to overcome pervasive racism in the long run too.Although he did some aggressive civil rights work as mysterious as the financing of lawsuits, he seemed really on the skilful adaptation to believe many of the social realities of the era of segregation. While apparently resigned, many undesirable social conditions in the short term, he was also clearly the view of a better future for blacks. Knew through his personal experiences, Washington, that was a good education is a great and powerful tool for individuals who work together to makebetter future.

"In all things purely to social as we separate as the fingers," he suggested, a biracial audience in his 1895 Atlanta Compromise address, "another the importance of the hand in all things, the mutual progress." Even if his methods sometimes rose from his need for support from powerful whites, some of them former slave owners, it is now known that Washington secretly funded anti-apartheid activities. But he has never wavered in his belief in the attainment ofFreedom: "For some things, I said that I may be the idea that some of the slaves do not want to get freedom. That's not true. I have never seen one who did not want to be free, or, the return to slavery. "

However, through the last years of his life in Washington away from many of his conciliatory policy, and said attacked with a new openness, racism. In 1915 he joined ranks with former critics to protest the stereotypical portrayal of blacks in a new movie,"Birth of a Nation." He also spoke out against lynchings and worked to make "separate" facilities more "equal."

Washington was now the dominant figure in the African American community in the United States, especially after he reached significance for his address in Atlanta 1895th For many politicians and the public in general, he had seen a popular spokesman for African American citizens. Born On behalf of the last generation of black leaders into slavery, he wasGenerally be perceived as a credible proponent of educational improvements for the freedman, who had remained in the post Reconstruction, Jim Crow South.

During the last 20 years of his life, he maintained this standing through a nationwide network of core supporters in many communities, including black educators, ministers, journalists and businessmen, especially those on the liberal-thinking social and educational issues. He has access to leaders in politics upwardPhilanthropy and Education, and was awarded an honorary doctorate. Critics called his network of supporters the "Tuskegee Machine."

Washington did much to the overall improvement of friendship and cooperation between the races in the United States. When Washington's autobiography, Up From Slavery, was published in 1901, it became a bestseller and had a great influence on the African American community and its friends and allies. Washington was 1901, the first African-Americanever invited to the White House as a guest of President Theodore Roosevelt. His autobiography, Up From Slavery, is still widely read. As a result of his work as a teacher and speaker, Washington became influential in business and politics. In addition to Tuskegee Institute, which still educates many today, Washington instituted a variety of work programs for rural extension, and contributed to the National Negro Business League in 1900 in an effort to inspire the creation of"Commercial, agricultural, educational and industrial advancement" of African-Americans. For his contributions to American society, Washington was awarded an honorary master's degree from Harvard University and in 1896 an honorary doctorate from Dartmouth College in 1901.Booker 's leadership also made him an honorary doctorate from Harvard University and Dartmouth College. He wrote several books and many other books were written about him.

Shortly after theElection of President William McKinley in 1896, was set in motion a movement in Washington to be named a minister, but he pulled his name from consideration rather work outside the political arena.

Washington was married three times, as shown in Up from Slavery, where he said all three of his wives enormous credit for their work at Tuskegee that he would not have been successful without them.

Fannie N. Smith was from Malden, West Virginia, the sameKanawha River Valley town eight miles upriver from Charleston where Washington had lived from the age of nine to sixteen (and maintained ties in later life). Washington and Smith were married in the summer 1882nd They had one child, Portia M. Washington. Fannie died in May 1884 ..

Washington next wed Olivia A. Davidson in 1885. She was born in Ohio, educated at Hampton Institute and the Massachusetts State Normal School in Framingham and spent time teaching inMississippi and Tennessee. Washington met Davidson at Tuskegee come, where they were to teach. Later, the assistant principal there. They had two sons, Booker T. Washington Jr. and Ernest Davidson Washington, before she died in 1889.

Washington third marriage in 1893 to Margaret James Murray. She was from Mississippi and was a graduate of Fisk University. They had no children together. Washington, Murray survived and died 1925th

Blacks were foundRepublicans, but after 1890 many lost the vote in the deep South (but still in border and northern states) vote. Washington emerged as a spokesman and was routinely by Republican leaders about the appointment of African-Americans, political positions throughout the country belongs. He worked and socialized with many white politicians and notables. He argued that the surest way for blacks to win, finally, to have equal rights to show patience, diligence, thrift,and usefulness and said that this is the key to improving conditions for African Americans in the United States and that they do not expect too much, as only the emancipation had been granted ..

Despite his travels and widespread work remained as principal of Washington, Tuskegee. This has had serious strain and stress on him. Washington's health was deteriorating so rapidly, so that he fell in New York City and was brought home to Tuskegee, where he died in November14, 1915 at the age of 59 years. With the permission of his descendants, examining the medical records indicate that he died of hypertension, with blood pressure more than twice normal and it confirms what has long been suspected. He was buried on the campus of Tuskegee University near the University Chapel. At his death Tuskegee equipment exceeded U.S. $ 1.5 million. His greatest life's work, the work of the education of blacks in the South, was in full swing and expand. A man who overcame near-impossible odds himself Booker T. Washington is best help black Americans remembering get out of economic slavery, which they pressed long after they are legally free citizens.

Arranged In 1934, Robert Russa Moton Washington's successor as president of Tuskegee University, an air tour for two African-American pilots, and then the machine has been christened Booker T. Washington.

On 7 April 1940, was in Washington the first African> Americans who featured on a U.S. postage stamp.

The first coin was a feature on African American Booker T. Washington Memorial Half Dollar that was from the United States in 1946 coined until 1951. He was also presented on a U.S. Half Dollar from 1951-1954.

On 5 April 1956, the hundredth anniversary of Washington's house, where he was born in Franklin County, Virginia, as Booker T. Washington National Monument is designated. A statePark in Chattanooga, Tennessee is named after him, like a bridge over the river next to his alma mater, Hampton, Hampton University.

In 1984, Hampton University dedicated a Booker T. Washington Memorial on campus near the historic Emancipation Oak, establishing, in the words of the university, "a relationship between one of America's great educators and social activists, and the symbol of Black Power in the areas of education. "

Many schools andSchools in the United States have been named after Booker T. Washington.

Referred to in the middle of the campus at Tuskegee University, the Booker T. Washington Monument, "Lifting the Veil", was dedicated in 1922. The inscription at the bottom reads: "He lifted the veil of ignorance from his people and pointed the way through education and industry sought."

It was financed by Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller, dined at the White House with Theodore Rooseveltand family, and was a guest of the Queen of England at Windsor Castle.


• Washington, Booker T. The Awakening of the Negro, The Atlantic Monthly, 78 (September 1896).

• Up from Slavery: An Autobiography (1901).

• Washington, Booker T. The Atlanta Cotton States Exposition Address (September 1895).

• The Booker T. Washington Papers University of Illinois Press online version of the complete volume of all letters placed two p.m.and Booker T. Washington.

• James D. Anderson, The Education of Blacks in the South, 1860-1935 (1988)

• Mark Bauerlein. Washington, Du Bois and the Black Future "in Wilson Quarterly (Autumn 2004)

• W. Fitzhugh Brundage, ed Booker T. Washington and Black Progress: Up From Slavery 100 years later (2003).

• Louis R. Harlan, Booker T. Washington: The Making of a Black Leader, 1856-1900 (1972), the standard biography, vol 1st

• Louis R. Harlan. "Booker T.Washington: The Wizard of Tuskegee, 1901-1915 (1983), the standard scholarly biography vol 2

• Louis R. Harlan. Booker T. Washington in Perspective: Essays of Louis R. Harlan (1988).

• Louis R. Harlan. "The Secret Life of Booker T. Washington." Journal of Southern History 37:2 (1971). in JSTOR Documents Booker T. Washington 's secret financing and management of complaints against exclusion and disenfranchisement.

• Linda O. McMurry. George Washington Carver, scientist andSymbol (1982)

• August Meier. "Toward a reinterpretation of the Booker T. Washington." The Journal of Southern History, 23 # 2 (May 1957), pp. 220-227. in JSTOR,. Document Booker T. Washington 's secret financing and management of complaints against exclusion and disenfranchisement.

• Cary D. Wintz, African American Political Thought, 1890-1930: Washington, Du Bois, Garvey, and Randolph (1996).

• Booker T. Washington High School

• Booker T. Washington 's WestVirginia Boyhood

• Works by Booker T. Washington at Project Gutenberg

• Up from Slavery, Project Gutenberg edition

• Up from Slavery, Electronic Edition

• Booker T. Washington 's 1909 Tour of Virginia on the newly completed Virginian Railway

• Dr. Booker T. Washington Papers – comments about Henry Rogers

The African American Almanac, 7th Ed., Thomson Gale. Reproduced in Biography Resource Center Thomson Gale.

The Booker T. • Complete Washington papers digital archive, University of Illinois Press searchable index to annotated text of all important letters to and from Washington and all his writings.

• A criticism of the Atlanta Compromise by WEB Dubois

• Booker T. Washington Delivers in 1895 Atlanta "Compromise" Speech from the American Social History Project / Center for Media and Learning (Graduate Center, CUNY) and Center for History and New Media (George Mason> University)


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